Cytotoxicity assay

Scientific researchers produce new products each day. The products range from pharmaceuticals, drugs, food additive and cosmetics. This product may contain cytotoxic compounds harmful to healthy living cells. To determine the safety of these products scientist subject the products to series of experiments. It involves assessing the viability and integrity of damaged cells.

 Methods used

1.     Enzyme release assays

There exist numerous ways of measuring and assessing the viability of a cell. Scientist uses cytotoxic LDH assay kit. It measures enzymes known as lactate dehydrogenase released by a damaged cell. The package uses both homogenous and non-homogenous assays.

2.     Dye uptake assay

This method uses a fluorescein diacetate stain dye which enters the cell membrane of a viable cell and accumulates. Inside the viable cell, the stain is hydrolysed into fluorescein which appears green and thus confirms its viability.  Dead cells do not permit fluorescein diacetate to enter. Therefore, you may efficiently differentiate dead cells from viable cells.

3.     Colorimetric microplate assay

It involves the use of sophisticated 96 microplates. It allows for detection of a wide variety of microorganism cells through an electron transfer system which receives an electron from viable cells. The recently developed method doesn’t require harvesting or washing.

4.     Dye exclusion assay

The concept around this assay works on the premise that dyes cannot permeate into membranes of viable cells. The most used dyes include naphthalene black, erythrocin, trypan blue and nigrosine green. The method involves mixing cells in solutions and viewing them under a microscope. On the microscope, stained cells represent dead cells while the unstained represents living cells.

5.      Chromium uptake assay

Damage to cells allows proteins to leak out.This leakage corresponds to the level of damaged cells. Labeled chromium binds to cellular proteins through amino acid. The method determines Lymphocytes cytotoxic activities against target cells.

Finally, cytotoxicity assay ensures human life gets enough protection from harmful compounds. The cytotoxic assay provides scientist with better solutions in guaranteeing continuous research solving emerging situations.

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