–etching bronze is an alloy composed of mostly copper, but also contains tin. It is different from brass which contains zinc instead of tin, with lower quality bronze usually containing around 6-10% tin.
-At room temperature, pure copper has a reddish-orange color that eventually darkens to brown as the percentage of copper increases in the alloy. The orange colour of the molten metal may be observed while refining since impurities tend to leave early when they are in liquid form and this leaves behind any heavy elements such as lead or tin.
-The connection between copper and human civilization can be traced back thousands of years because it was one of the first metals to be smelted by humans somewhere around 9000 BC during the New Stone Age.
-Since bronze requires some tin to be present, it is not as ancient as pure copper. However, for this reason the alloy was still around during the Iron Age and people were able to start making better steel weapons such as swords and daggers which were stronger than those made from pure copper. The Bronze Age only lasted until about 600 BC when iron started to become more widely used because of its properties.
-The process of creating bronze begins with mining for ore deposits that contain both the metal copper and the metal tin (or other metal elements). There are many ways in which mining can occur: open pit mine, strip mining, underground mining etc. For example: an open pit mine would consist of digging up large quantities of dirt above the copper ore to extract it.
-The next step in the process is purification which is done by smelting the mined ore into a pure metal, usually copper. Depending on the requirements of each manufacturing company, they may use more than one purification process. For example, bronze that requires higher quality may require flux removal during purification through smelting or addition of other elements before or during smelting.
-After the purified metal has been obtained, molten bronze is poured into cast molds where it is allowed to cool and solidify for several hours until becoming hard enough to be removed from the mold once it completely cools down. Once cooled down after remelting several times (about 5 remeltings), impurities that decrease the quality of the alloy will accumulate and can be removed.
-The final step in making bronze is annealing which consists of heating the metal to a high temperature ranging from 400-600 so it softens and becomes easier to work with when beating, chiseling or shaping. Bronze was typically cast into ingots during ancient times for convenience on transporting them since melting was already complicated enough.
-Afterwards, they were most likely used to make large items such as statues or weapons. The Bronze Age came to an end partly due to its public perception about being inferior compared with iron, but also because it became rarer and more expensive. Nowadays, bronze is still widely for commercial purposes especially in vehicle components and jewelry.
-In the automotive industry, bronze is used in brake discs and its fabrication requires an extremely high quality of refining. Other uses for bronze include bearings, bushings, connectors, gear wheels and racks. In modern times, industries such as plumbing and electrical use it regularly for connections or even screws where conductivity plays a role.
-The process of producing bronze is very complex since it has to be done with low-quality ore at first since impurities will accumulate during purification; purification itself can occur through various processes depending on their requirements; finally repeated remelting and annealing is required after molten metal hardens to make sure the finished product only consists of pure copper and tin (or other additives).